some investments in this sector have languished far longer than that

Solar company Solyndra, for one, pulled its IPO a year ago due to poor market conditions but is still in business. It has raised some $1 billion in venture capital, including investments from CMEA Ventures and Redpoint Ventures, on top of a $535 million loan guarantee from the federal government.

For their study, Chinnery’s team studied muscle cells from HIV-infected adults, some of whom had previously been given NRTIs. They found that patients who had been treated with NRTIs – even as long as 10 years previously – had damaged mitochondria similar to that of a healthy older person.

The researchers are now looking at ways to repair or stall some of the damage caused by the drugs and say they believe that focusing on exercise – which appears to have a beneficial effect on patients with mitochondrial diseases – may help.

EnerVault isn’t the only flow battery startup out there. Primus Power has received $14 million from the DOE for a $47 million project to build a 25 MW (75 megawatt-hours) zinc flow battery farm in Modesto, which also is in California’s Central Valley. Primus Power’s storage farm will demonstrate how its battery will complement wind power generation from the area, and construction is supposed to start in 2012.

Cellulosic ethanol maker Range Fuels Inc, for instance, was forced to shut down operations after raising $100 million in 2008 from Passport Capital, Khosla Ventures and others to build its first commercial plant in Georgia.

Some companies, however, are simply taking their time. Generally, venture capital companies expect exits, either IPOs or sales to make a profit on their investments, in 4 to 6 years. But some investments in this sector have languished far longer than that, forcing VCs to rethink their timetables.

“With these key investments, we can ensure that the United States remains a nation that ‘invents it here and manufactures it here’ and creates high-quality, good paying jobs for American workers,” Obama said. Last month, Primus said it had raised $11 million in venture capital from investors including DBL Investors, I2BF Global Ventures, Chrysalix Energy Venture Capital and Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers.

Many of the EV charging station and electric vehicle service companies see the potential for making money for themselves and vehicle owners by participating in ancillary services in the near term. This role of energy aggregator is already being pursued by startups that are looking to innovate ahead of the glacial pace at which most utilities shift to something new. V2G technology will be explored fully in an upcoming Pike Research report.

“The biofuels/solar `If you build it, they will come’ model of raising hundreds of millions of dollars to demonstrate technology is now dead in the water,” said Peter Hebert, managing partner of New York-based venture firm Lux Capital.

If a promising new business needs to build a factory that will prove its technology works, VCs are bringing in deep-pocketed corporate partners to fund it rather than shouldering the entire burden themselves.

Concerns about toxicity of NRTIs, particularly with long-term use, mean the drugs are now less commonly used in wealthy countries where they have been replaced by newer more expensive combination AIDS drugs with fewer side-effects.

But in poorer countries, where access to cheaper generic medicines is often the only option for HIV patients to get treatment, NRTIs are still relatively widely used.

The 250 KW system will be able to store 1 megawatt-hour of energy and power the farm’s irrigation pumps, he added. Ktech will carry out the project and combine EnerVault’s battery system with an 180 KW array of solar panels. The project will cost about $9.52 million, and the U.S. Department of Energy has awarded about $4.76 million to make it happen.

“The biofuels/solar If you build it, they will come’ model of raising hundreds of millions of dollars to demonstrate technology is now dead in the water,” said Peter Hebert, managing partner of New York-based venture firm Lux Capital.

If a promising new business needs to build a factory that will prove its technology works, VCs are bringing in deep-pocketed corporate partners to fund it rather than shouldering the entire burden themselves. EnerVault has completed its flow battery prototype and plans to install a demonstration project at an almond farm in the California Central Valley town of Turlock in the third quarter of 2012, Horne said.

It hopes for similar achievements by speeding development of new technologies such as next-generation robotics, advanced composite materials, small high-powered batteries and bio-manufacturing.

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